مباحث مربوط به ترجمه و آموزش زبان انگلیسی

What is the brain?

          Brain is center of learning.

          Weighs about 3 pounds.

          It is a complex organ that allows us to think, move, feel, see, hear, taste, and smell.

          It controls our body, receives information, analyzes information, and stores information.

          It is always active.

          When it takes information through the senses, it translates it into a response.

Each brain...

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Choose the correct answer to go in the gap.

1. I'm afraid I don't have much experience in dealing with ....... teenagers.


2. This new biography provides a fascinating account of the adventures of one of the most ....... explorers.


3.  She begged to be allowed to go and her parents finally ...... .


4. She gave him a ....... smile.


5. As usual he was dressed ....... .


6. There was ....... in the crowd as the winning point was scored. 


7.  The defeat was the ....... of his career.


8.  She is almost embarrassingly ....... to anyone in authority.


9. There's a  ....... of restrictions on who can apply for benefits.


10. There was  .......  laughter from the audience at every one of his terrible jokes.


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Here are 100 advanced English words which should you be able to use them in a sentence will impress even educated native speakers! Perfect if you want to impress the examiner in examinations like: IELTS, TOEFL and Cambridge CAE and CPE. If you are really serious about having an extensive and impressive vocabulary, try learning these and then try advanced vocabulary tests.

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نوشته شده توسط مجتبی بذرکار در ساعت  | لینک  | 

Here are 100 advanced English words which should you be able to use them in a sentence will impress even educated native speakers! Perfect if you want to impress the examiner in examinations like: IELTS, TOEFL and Cambridge CAE and CPE. If you are really serious about having an extensive and impressive vocabulary, try learning these and then try advanced vocabulary tests.

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One widely-accepted list of translation techniques is outlined briefly below.

1. Borrowing

This means taking words straight into another language. Borrowed terms often pass into general usage, for example in the fields of technology ("software") and culture ("punk"). Borrowing can be for different reasons, with the examples below being taken from usage rather than translated texts:

   The target language has no (generally used) equivalent. For example, the first man-made satellites were Soviet, so for a time they were known in English as "sputniks".

   The source language word sounds "better" (more specific, fashionable, exotic or just accepted), even though it can be translated. For example, Spanish IT is full or terms like "soft [ware]", and Spanish accountants talk of "overheads", even though these terms can be translated into Spanish. 

   to retain some "feel" of the source language. For example, from a recent issue of The Guardian newspaper: "Madrileños are surprisingly unworldly."


2. Calque

This is a literal translation at phrase level. Sometimes calques work, sometimes they don't. You often see them in specialized, internationalized fields such as quality assurance (aseguramiento de calidad, assurance qualité, Qualitätssicherung...).

3. Literal Translation

Just what it says - "El equipo está trabajando para acabar el informe" - "The team is working to finish the report". Again, sometimes it works and sometimes it doesn't. For example, the Spanish sentence above could not be translated into French or German in the same way - you would have to use technique no. 4...

4. Transposition

This is the mechanical process whereby parts of speech "play musical chairs" (Fawcett's analogy) when they are translated. Grammatical structures are not often identical in different languages. "She likes swimming" translates as "Le gusta nadar" (not "nadando") - or in German, "Sie schwimmt gern", because gerunds and infinitives work in different ways in English and Spanish, and German is German (bringing in an adverb to complicate matters). Transposition is often used between English and Spanish because of the preferred position of the verb in the sentence: English wants the verb up near the front; Spanish can have it closer to the end. 

5. Modulation

Now we're getting clever. Slightly more abstract than transposition, this consists of using a phrase that is different in the source and target languages to convey the same idea - "Te lo dejo" - "You can have it".

6. Reformulation (sometimes known as équivalence)

Here you have to express something in a completely different way, for example when translating idioms or, even harder, advertising slogans. The process is creative, but not always easy. Would you have given the name Sonrisas y lágrimas to the film The Sound of Music in Spanish?

7. Adaptation

Here something specific to the source language culture is expressed in a totally different way that is familiar or appropriate to the target language culture. Sometimes it is valid, and sometimes it is problematic, to say the least. Should a restaurant menu in a Spanish tourist resort translate "pincho" as "kebab" in English? Should a French text talking about Belgian jokes be translated into English as talking about Irish jokes (always assuming it should be translated at all)? We will return to these problems of referentiality below. 

8. Compensation

Another model describes a technique known as compensation. This is a rather amorphous term, but in general terms it can be used where something cannot be translated from source to target language, and the meaning that is lost in the immediate translation is expressed somewhere else in the TT. Fawcett defines it as: "...making good in one part of the text something that could not be translated in another". One example given by Fawcett is the problem of translating nuances of formality from languages which use forms such as tu and usted (tu/vous, du/Sie, etc.) into English which only has 'you', and expresses degrees of formality in different ways. If you want to read more, look at Fawcett 1997:31-33.


نوشته شده توسط مجتبی بذرکار در ساعت  | لینک  | 

English Speaking Practice Through Presentations

By Josef Essberger,


Cambridge, England


If you're anything like most teachers, you're probably constantly looking for new ways to encourage your students to practise their oral English and speak spontaneously. This month, we're going to consider the value of the 'presentation' in achieving this.


Asking students to give presentations has the following advantages:

it gives the presenting student a good opportunity to practise unaided speaking

it gives the other students good listening practice

it increases the presenting student's confidence when using English

it can be good practice for the real situation for those students who may actually need to give presentations in English in their professional lives

it is an excellent generator of spontaneous discussion

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    Getting the whole class talking

    The following activities are designed to get everyone talking. They can be used with all levels because the language required to communicate is determined by the students. Remember to set up and demonstrate these activities carefully before letting the class go ahead.


    Jigsaw puzzle challenge


    Take 3-4 large pictures/photos and stick them on card. Pictures can come from Sunday supplements, travel brochures, calendars, magazine adverts etc. Pictures specific to students’ interests will motivate them e.g. film stills, cartoons, news stories, famous paintings, famous people.

    ·         Draw puzzle shapes on the back of each picture (4-5 shapes) and cut out the picture pieces.

    ·         Give each student in the class a jigsaw piece. They must not show their piece to anyone.

    ·         Students then mingle and question each other about what is on their puzzle piece to try and find people with pieces of the same jigsaw.

    ·         The object of the game is to find all pieces and put together the jigsaw. The first complete picture puzzle wins.


    Something in common or 'give me five'


    Explain that we can all find something in common with those around us. The object of this game is to discover as many things you have in common with fellow students. You can limit this to 5 things in common.

    ·         Brainstorm examples with the whole class, noting suggestions, e.g. 

    o    We both have long-haired cats

    o    they both went to see Robbie Williams in concert

    o    We all like Harry Potter

    o    We both have a younger sister called Georgia

    o    Our favourite colour is green

    o    Our families go to the same supermarket, church, club, holiday place

    o    We both believe in love at first sight, ghosts, god.

    ·         Give students a time limit to mingle and find out as many things they have in common. The one who finds the most is the winner.

    ·         Alternatively ask them to find five things and the first person to shout 'five' is the winner.


    Create a biography


    Take a biography of a famous person and write each detail on strips of paper. Keep the identity secret so they have to guess, if appropriate.

    ·         Draw a table on the board for students to copy and make notes e.g. place of birth, early years, famous for..

    ·         Give out the strips (split the class in two if large and give out 2 sets)

    ·         Students mingle and ask each other questions until they have as many details as possible about the person.

    ·         Take away the strips and put students in pairs or small groups to use their table of notes to write the biography.

نوشته شده توسط مجتبی بذرکار در ساعت  | لینک  | 

10 Resume-Writing Mistakes to Avoid

By Michelle Dumas,

the Director of Distinctive Career Services LLC

Is your resume generating disappointing results? Have you been sending your resume for positions that you know you are qualified for, but the phone remains silent? If so, you might want to check it and revise it against these ten common errors. ...

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Have you ever felt you were asking all the questions about students’ opinions? Do you find you are doing more talking in a discussion than your class? Here are some tips to:

·         Shift the task focus from you talking to them (they have to talk to each other)

·         Give them control of their own discussion

·         Give them practice in formulating their opinions within a controlled framework.


Make a list of issues or topics which your students might find interesting. Think of seven or eight statements on each issue which represent typical and widely opposing comments on the topic.

For example:

·         Topic: Are boys and girls the same? 

·         Girls naturally want to play with dolls

·         Boys are usually better at Science subjects than girls.


Discussion envelopes

·         Photocopy each list of statements on different topics and put them in 3-4 envelopes.

·         Divide the class into small groups. Tell them the title of each topic.

·         Each group selects an envelope. They work through the topic in their group, taking turns to read aloud the statements found in the envelope and inviting comment and opinions.

·         You can ask each group to record their reactions to the issues for feedback at the end of the session.

·         Re-use the envelopes in another lesson. Each group chooses a new topic and envelope.


Listen and react

·         Put students in small groups of 3 all facing each other.

·         Act as conductor by reading aloud a statement on a list, one at a time.

·         After each statement students have one minute to react in their group to what they have heard, disagree, agree, comment etc.

·         Stop them talking after a minute (with gong, whistle, clap) and read the next statement on your list.

·         Students hear you but must look at each other and tell each other what they think!


Read and modify

·         Give a list of statements on a set topic to each group in the class

·         Students must work through the statements and modify them to reflect their views as a group. This involves discussion on how they will re word the sentence or add a further clause to justify their position. 

For example:

o    Topic: The school year 

§  Statement: School holidays are too long

§  Students’ modified sentence: We think school holidays are not long enough

·         Use the feedback session at the end of the lesson to hear some of the “new” statements that each group has created.

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How to be a Good Teacher:

·         Some qualities of good teachers:

a.       An ability to give interesting classes

b.      Using the full range of their personality

c.       The desire to empathize with students

d.      Treating students all equally

e.       Knowing names of all students

·         The kind of language teachers use with students should at all times comprehensible, especially when giving instructions it should be clear and well staged.

·         Teachers talking time (TTT) can have uses – helping students to acquire language – but it should not predominate at the expense of students talking time (STT).

·         Teachers must be able to respond flexibly to what happens in class.


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Translator Prerequisites and the A-Z of becoming a Translator

 By John Neilan,


If you are serious about becoming a translator, you must be able to fulfil the following criteria, at the very least.

Translator Prerequisites

  Your standard of education must be very high; with very few exceptions, a degree is essential, though not necessarily in languages - it is a positive advantage to have qualifications or experience in another subject. Postgraduate training in translation is useful. You must be able to write your own mother tongue impeccably in a style and register appropriate to the subject and have a flair for research on technical subjects.

  It goes without saying, that you should have a thorough grasp of the languages in your language combination, you must also be familiar with the culture and customs of the country. The only way to do this is by surrounding yourself with the language, i.e: by living/studying in the country where the language is spoken. German is spoken in 5 countries: Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Liechtenstein and Luxembourg. There is no substitute for first-hand experience of living in a foreign culture, and as an Irishman living in Berlin, Germany, I can only recommend this course of action.

  It is best to have a specific field that you specialise in, be it literature, technical, medical, legal.

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Here below are some useful links to Sample Business Letters:

Sample Business Letters are listed in Alphabetical Order

1. 10-Day Notice Before Collections on Delinquent Account
2. 30-Day Notice to Quit
3. Acceptance of Counter Proposal
4. Acceptance of Order With Delivery in Lots
5. Acceptance of Purchase Security Agreement
6. Acceptance of Resignation
7. Acknowledged Receipt of Goods
8. Acknowledged Resignation
9. Acknowledgement and Acceptance of Order
10. Acknowledgement from Publisher, Comments Referred to Author

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Lovers of the English language might enjoy this. It is yet another example of why people learning English have trouble with the language.  Learning the nuances of English makes it a difficult language. (But then, that's probably true of many languages..)   

There is a two-letter word in English that perhaps has more meanings than any other two-letter word, and that word is 'UP.'  It is listed in the dictionary as being used as an [adv], [prep], [adj], [n] or [v].

It's easy to understand UP, meaning toward the sky or at the top of the list, but when we awaken in the morning, why do we wake UP?

At a meeting, why does a topic come UP ? Why do we speak UP, and why are the officers UP for election and why is it UP to the secretary to write UP a report? We call UP our friends and we use it to brighten UP a room, polish UP the silver, we warm UP the leftovers and clean UP the kitchen. We lock UP the house and some guys fix UP the old car.
At other times the little word has a real special meaning. People stir UP trouble, line UP for tickets, work UP an appetite, and think UP excuses.

To be dressed is one thing but to be dressed UP is special.

And this up is confusing:
A drain must be opened UP because it is stuffed  UP.

We open UP a store in the morning but we close it UP at night.   We seem to be pretty mixed UPabout UP !

To be knowledgeable about the proper uses of UP , look the word UP in the dictionary. In a desk-sized dictionary, it takes UP almost 1/4 of the page and can add UP to about thirty definitions

If you are UP to it, you might try building UP a list of the many ways UP is used. It will take UP a lot of your time, but if you don't give UP, you may wind UP with a hundred or more.

When it threatens to rain, we say it is clouding UP . When the sun comes out we say it is clearing UP. When it rains, it wets UP the earth. When it does not rain for awhile, things dry UP.

One could go on & on, but I'll wrap it UP , for now.  My time is UP.

Oh...one more thing:
What is the first thing you do in the morning & the last thing you do at night?

U  P ee

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آيا انگليسي آمريکايي (American English) و انگليسي بريتانيايي (British English) دو زبان مجزا هستند يا دو حالت مختلف از زبان انگليسي؟ بعضي‌ها مي‌گويند آنها دو زبان مختلف هستند ولي خيلي‌ها آنها را تنها حالتهاي مختلفي از يک زبان مي‌دانند.

البته هيچ پاسخ دقيقي براي اين پرسش وجود ندارد. ما فقط مي‌توانيم بگوييم که تفاوتهايي ميان آنها وجود دارد. البته بايد بدانيد که اين تفاوتها جزئي بوده و در اثر يکپارچه شدن دنياي امروز اين تفاوتها روز به روز کمتر مي‌شوند.

در ادامه با برخي از تفاوتهاي ميان اين دو نسخه از زبان انگليسي آشنا مي‌شويد.

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روشهای فراگیری لغات

به خاطر سپردن لغتهای یک زبان خارجی می تواند یکی از بخشهای خسته کننده در فراگیری زبان باشد. خوشبختانه روشهای مختلفی برای سرعت بخشیدن و نیز لذت بخش کردن آن وجود دارد که در ادامه به آن می پردازیم:

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