ترجمه و آموزش زبان انگلیسی - How to Teach English - Jeremy Harmer- Part 1
مباحث مربوط به ترجمه و آموزش زبان انگلیسی

How to be a Good Teacher:

·         Some qualities of good teachers:

a.       An ability to give interesting classes

b.      Using the full range of their personality

c.       The desire to empathize with students

d.      Treating students all equally

e.       Knowing names of all students

·         The kind of language teachers use with students should at all times comprehensible, especially when giving instructions it should be clear and well staged.

·         Teachers talking time (TTT) can have uses – helping students to acquire language – but it should not predominate at the expense of students talking time (STT).

·         Teachers must be able to respond flexibly to what happens in class.


How to be a Good Learner:

·         Positive experiences in the classroom may change students' attitude, i.e. they become more motivated to learn.

·         Good learners take some of the responsibilities for learning themselves. Teachers should try and encourage the practice of self-study.

·         Good learners are willing to experiment, listen, ask questions and think about how to learn.

·         Adult learners can be disruptive and they can be quit nervous about learning but they also have more world knowledge and a greater tolerance for serious learning.

·         The choice of language and activities must be appropriate must be according to students' level.


How to Manage Teaching and Learning:

·         Regarding teachers' physical presence in class, they should pay attention to their proximity to the students, think about how much they move around the class and consider the appropriacy of their behavior in class.

·         Teachers need to make contact with their students, especially eye contact.

·         Teachers need to be clearly audible without shouting in disagreeable way.

·         There is need for variety in the way teachers use their voices. Different activities call for different voices; and the varied use of the voice makes for more interesting classes.

·         It is important for teachers to conserve their voices which it might be their most important instrument.

·         Teachers need to mark stages and changes of activity clearly so that students know what's going on.

·         Successful teachers know how to start classes and how to close them so that there is a feeling of completeness.

·         The class should be arranged physically, from orderly rows to separate tables.

·         In orderly row classrooms teachers need to keep in touch with what's going on and involve all students in such a situation.

·         Groupwork and pairwork have their own advantages but solowork sometimes comes as a great relief to students. Whole class teaching is beneficial in certain circumstances too.

·         Teachers need to try out new techniques and evaluate them too.

·         As important part of class management teachers can use a variety of means to keep track of their students' progress.


 How to describe Learning and Teaching:

·         The necessary elements to learn language in the real world are: Exposure, Motivation and Use.

·         Three elements for successful teaching and learning in class are: Engage (E), Study (S) and Activate (A)

·         There are different lesson sequences which contain the Engage, Study and Activate elements.

·         In straight arrows lesson the order is ESA.

·         In boomerang lessons is EAS. Study can be based on how well students performed.

·         Patchwork classes mix the three elements in various different sequences (e.g. EAASASEA…).

·         Different models which people have used to describe teaching are PPP (Presentation, Practice and Production), Task-Based Learning which puts the task first and language study last, and Communicative Language Teaching with its twin emphasis on appropriate language use and Activation methodology.

·         PPP is a form of straight arrows lessons while Task-Based Learning is more like boomerang or patchwork sequences. Communicative Language Teaching is responsible for the modern emphasis on the Activate stages of lessons.

·         Good teachers vary the ESA sequences they use with their students to avoid monotony and offer a range of learning sequences. The three elements are always present but in many and different combinations.


How to describe Language:

·         Sentences are constructed and of and from subjects, verbs, objects, complements and adverbials.

·         A grammatical form or a word does not guarantee its meaning. Words and structures can have many meanings just as similar concepts can be represented by different forms or words.

·         There are differences between speech and writing. Each has its different characteristics and students need to know about these. Teachers need to expose students to written and spoken English.

·         Pronunciation has three aspects: Sounds, Stress and Intonation.

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